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What Are The Primary Causes Of Hallux Valgus?

Overview
Bunion Pain
A bunion develops when the joint at the base of the big toe becomes swollen and most likely painful. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons suggests these ways to ease bunion pain. Make sure shoes fit properly and comfortably, and mold to the shape of your feet. Opt for shoes with a soft sole, wide toe box and wide instep. Avoid heels of more than 2 1/4 inches, those that are too tight, and shoes with pointy, narrow toes. To accommodate a bunion, wear shoes that are a bit big, or have your shoes professionally stretched. Place a protective cushioned pad over the bunion.


Causes
Bunions are caused by pressure on the inside of the forefoot which causes the 1st metatarsal bone in the foot to migrating outwards. Biomechanical factors can contribute to the development of bunions for example if you over pronate where the foot rolls in or flattens excessively which causes the inside of the foot to rub against the shoe. Wearing high heeled shoes regularly also increases the risk of developing the condition . The pressure on the forefoot is increased considerably as the heel is raised up. Age is also a factor as the ligaments lose strength as you get older.


Symptoms
If a foot bunion is developing, you may experience some of these symptoms. Bulge or bump on the outside of the base of your big toe. Swelling. Redness. Soreness. Thickening of the skin in that location. Corns or calluses. Limited movement of your big toe. Persistent or periodic pain. The pain you experience may be mild or severe. It may become increasingly difficult to walk in your normal shoes. The pressure on your other toes can cause your toenails to grow inward or your smaller toes to become bent.


Diagnosis
The doctor considers a bunion as a possible diagnosis when noting the symptoms described above. The anatomy of the foot, including joint and foot function, is assessed during the examination. Radiographs (X-ray films) of the foot can be helpful to determine the integrity of the joints of the foot and to screen for underlying conditions, such as arthritis or gout. X-ray films are an excellent method of calculating the alignment of the toes when taken in a standing position.


Non Surgical Treatment
If you suspect a bunion, it is essential that you confirm your suspicions by consulting with a podiatric physician. Don?t try to treat the problem yourself, even by using conservative measures. Many conditions have similar symptoms, and only a professional can tell the difference. Once a diagnosis is obtained, it is essential to begin treatment immediately. Your podiatric physician will advise you on the most effective means. If caught early enough, good foot care, shoes that fit properly, and/or orthoses may eliminate the need for any further intervention. Certain over-the-counter remedies, such as felt or foam pads, applied to specific areas of the foot to relieve pressure and friction, will protect the bunion. Elevating the foot and icing the area for 20 minutes an hour may help to relieve pain.
Bunions


Surgical Treatment
If the above simple measures do not make you comfortable, an operation may improve the situation. An operation will not give you an entirely normal foot, but it will correct the deformity of the big toe and narrow your foot back towards a more desirable shape. There are a lot of different operations for bunions, depending on the severity of the deformity, the shape of your foot and whether arthritis has developed in the big toe joint. An orthopaedic surgeon who specialises in foot & ankle surgery can advise you on the best operation for your foot. However, an operation may not make your foot narrow enough to wear tight shoes, nor can it fully restore the strength of the big toe.

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